Effects of Passive Smoking on Snoring in Preschool Children

This new study is one of the few to try to make an attempt to assess the existence or nonexistence of effects of passive smoking on snoring in preschool children:

Effects of Passive Smoking on Snoring in Preschool Children,” Yin Zhu, Chun Ting Au, Ting Fan Leung, Yun Kwok Wing, Christopher Wai Kei Lam, Albert Martin Li, Journal of Pediatrics, epub July 1, 2013. The authors, at the Chinese University of Hong Kong and Macau University of Science and Technology, explain:

“Objective: To examine the association between passive smoking and snoring in preschool children using parent-reported questionnaires and urine cotinine levels… Cotinine, a major degradation product of nicotine metabolism, has become an important biomarker for quantifying passive exposure to cigarette smoke….

“Conclusion: Environmental tobacco smoke exposure is an independent risk factor for snoring in preschool children.”

Here’s detail from the study:


One of the few earlier studies is:

Snoring and Passive Smoking: A Counterblaste?Ron Grunstein, American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine, vol. 170, no. 7, 2004, pp. 722-723. The author, at Woolcock Institute of Medical Research in Sydney, Australia, discusses those earlier studies, and also King James I of England.