One needn’t ruminate more than one wants or need to, suggests this study: “The Cessation of Rumination Through Self-Affirmation,” Sander L. Koole, Karianne Smeets, Ad van Knippenberg, and Ap Dijksterhuis, Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 1999, Vol. 77, No. 1, 111-25. The authors affirm that they are at the University of Nijmegen, The Netherlands.
Ponder, if you will, the implications of this study: “Rethinking Rumination,” Susan Nolen-Hoeksema, Blair E. Wisco, and Sonja Lyubomirsky [pictured here], Perspectives on Psychological Science, vol 3, no. 5, 2008, pp. 400-424. The authors are at Yale University and University of California, Riverside.