A 1912 Olympic shooting mystery math/physics quiz

This week’s math/physics essay quiz is to explain the math and physics underlying these “INSTRUCTIONS FOR THE OFFICIALS AND COMPETITORS AT THE SHOOTING COMPETITIONS” from  THE OFFICIAL REPORT OF THE OLYMPIC GAMES OF STOCKHOLM 1912, ISSUED BY THE SWEDISH OLYMPIC COMMITTEE. Here is the relevant passage:

In addition to the rules and regulations already issued, and with ‘which each competitor must be acquainted before the shooting begins, the following rules shall also be in force.

1. The competitor must not be credited with any point at all (= o) for a shot that hits a target belonging to another nation or to any other competitor.

2. If on the target of a competitor there is found, on marking, one hit more than he has fired shots, the said competitor shall reckon the best hit, but only on the supposition that the competitor himself has not fired more than one shot; should he have fired more than one shot, he may only reckon the lowest hits.

3. If on the target or figure of a competitor there is found, on marking, two or more hits than he has fired shots, the competitor must fire the series again.


(Large) PDF of the entire report.

(Much smaller) Text thereof.