Jaroslav Flegr [pictured here] devises complex tests to discern effects that may be suble. Here he is, at it in 2006:
“Dominance, submissivity (and homosexuality) in general population. Testing of evolutionary hypothesis of sadomasochism by internet-trap-method,” Eva Jozifkova and Jaroslav Flegr, Neuroendocrinology Letters, vol. 27, no. 6, 2006, pp 711-8. The authors, at Charles University in Prague, explain:
OBJECTIVE: Dominance and submissiveness represent strong sexual arousal stimuli for a considerable part of population. In contrast to men’s sexual dominance and women’s sexual submissiveness, the opposite preferences represent an evolutionary enigma. Here, we studied prevalence and strength of particular preferences in general population by Internet-trap-method.
DESIGN: The subjects who clicked the banner displayed in the web interface of e-mail boxes were allowed to choose icons with homosexual or heterosexual partner of different hierarchical position.
RESULTS: Dominant partner was chosen by 13.8% men and 20.5% women, and submissive partner by 36.6% men and 19.8% women. Homosexual partners were chosen by 7.3% men and 12.2% wome
Detail from that study:
BONUS: Kathleen McAuliffe, in The Atlantic magazine, writes about some of Flagr’s other research, about toxoplasmosis and what’s known in the trade as “crazy cat ladies”. Her report begins:
Jaroslav Flegr is no kook. And yet, for years, he suspected his mind had been taken over by parasites that had invaded his brain….
BONUS: Co-author Eva Jozifkova’s “Sexual Arousal by Higher- and Lower-Ranking Partner: Manifestation of a Mating Strategy?“