Investigator Ben Broughton writes: “I came across this paper while looking to settle an argument about whether muscles need hinges to produce significant power. The researchers fabricated an apparatus to measure the force of a rat’s tongue. The paper explains that with training, a young rat can increase the force its tongue can produce by 250%, a quite incredible physiological feat.” The study is:
“Effect of tongue exercise on protrusive force and muscle fiber area in aging rats,” Nadine P. Connor [pictured here], John A. Russell, Hao Wang, Michelle A. Jackson, Laura Mann and Keith R. Kluender, J Speech Lang Hear Res., Epub 2008 August 22. doi: 10.1044/1092-4388(2008/08-0105). The authors are at the University of Wisconsin.