“Suppose I utter “ X is yummy ” ironically. Then I have said what I have said, whatever feelings and pleasures I may or may not have. The point applies equally to nonlinguistic expressive gestures with institutionalized meanings. If I stand up or take my hat off when someone important comes into a room, then I have expressed respect, whatever I am thinking. I may inwardly be seething with contempt. Still, I have expressed respect since that is what those gestures mean . This is crucial for the Frege-Geach problem. I can take my hat off sincerely or ironically, just as I can utter “ X is yummy ” sincerely or ironically, just as I can use “ X is yummy” in unembedded and embedded contexts. (I am not suggesting a pragmatic theory of embedding; rather, both pragmatic and embedding phenomena have the same explanation.)” [our hyperlink]
See: The Yummy and the Yucky: Expressive Language and the Agreeable The Monist, 2018, 101, 294–308
BONUS Philosophical Question : ‘Do you exist, and can you prove it?’ Food for thought is provided here by Prof. Zangwill.
[ Research research by Martin Gardiner ]