*DARPA* – the US military technology development agency famous for their work on mechanical elephants, Hafnium bombs, remotely controlled sharks, Hellfire-missile-equipped Predator drones and more.

Simply put, Fully Homomorphic Encryption means that given two ciphertexts c_{1} and c_{2} which encrypt messages m_{1} and m_{2} under a key k, i.e.

# c1=enc(k,m_{1})

# c2=enc(k,m_{2})

there is an operation Add, which anyone can perform, which produces a ciphertext c_{3} which is the encryption of m_{1}+m_{2}; and an operation Multiply, again which anyone can perform, which produces a ciphertext c_{4} which is the encryption of m_{1}*m_{2},

#c_{3}=Add(c_{1},c_{2}) = enc(k,m_{1}+m_{2})

#c_{4}=Multiply(c_{1},c_{2}) = enc(k,m_{1}*m_{2})

The important point is that to apply Add and Multiply we do not need knowledge of the key k.

Aside from his homomorphic encryption activities professor Smart is also Editor in Cheek of the *Journal of Craptology*, to which he has also contributed his own articles, such as ‘A treatise on the application of Zero Knowledge Proofs’ (J*ournal of Craptology*, Volume 2, July 2006.)